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Women's Bodies

Male Heteropatriarchal Power

Racial Realist has a post up entitled A New Way Forward for Black Feminism.  In her post she says:

1. For the black woman (while sexism is undoubtedly a serious problem in the black community) racism is still the most significant form of oppression;

2. Black women experience sexism differently from white women – which brings me to my final point:

Maybe black women would be better off addressing gender equality/promoting feminism internally within the black community rather than doing this in collaboration with the white feminist movement…I personally am beginning to feel that this would be better for black women, and better for black male – female relationships/ overall black unity.

Nubian responded in a post entitled i’m bored with the oppression olympics citing specifically to lesbophobia/homophobia in the black community and concluding:

but i think, it is naive to claim that gender oppression outweighs racial oppression, or that racism is more oppressive than sexism. seriously. think about the young girl, sakia gunn, who was killed at the age of 15 for not being a woman, but for being a lesbian.


Rev. Dr.  Ken Hutcherson

I hear that, especially when we have paragons of virtue like the esteemed Reverend Ken Hutcherson out here in Seattle, pastor of Antioch Bible Church, a conservative Christian megachurch, who is busy heading up a national anti-gay-and-lesbian-rights campaign entitled “Mayday for Marriage.”  Together with James Dobson and Chuck Colson, Hutcherson led 250,000 people in a rally on the White House mall in support of “traditional marriage” during a time when gay and lesbian couples were fighting assaults on gay and lesbian marriage and partnership rights in a number of states.   Hutcherson is continually on the news out here with his lesbophobic screeds (screeds against gay men, too, but lesbians come first with me always because they are my people), who said, in the course of organizing a nation-wide boycott of Microsoft for its pro-gay-and-lesbian political activism:

“Gay behavior is learned, just like prejudice. It’s a sin to God.
I’m lovingly aggressive, [with gays] the same I’d be for a murderer or an adulterer. I give ’em the love of God. If they reject it, I give them the discipline of God.
“Same sex marriage was just the thing to wake the sleeping giant of Christian voters in the 2004 election. We’re not going to lay it down until we get the marriage amendment.”
We have a responsibility to keep the moral standards in our society.”
“We’re going to win, Is it going to be civil or hostile? If you surrender and accept Him as your Lord and savior, it’s going to be civil. You reject Him, it’s going to be hostile.”

More here

Ken Hutcherson is a man who is all about wielding male heteropatriarchal power over women– of all races and ethnicities.  My white skin is no protection against the kind of power Ken Hutcherson has, just as my white skin was no protection against the power my former black pastor had to head up a coalition of religious rightwingers who put me out of business, just as my white skin was no protection against the power my second black husband had to create the felt need for that coalition when I filed for divorce after 19 years of abuse, just as my white skin was no protection against the power my first husband had to nearly take my life by beating me with a lead pipe, fracturing my skull and eyesockets. 

In Racial Realist’s post she says:

For that reason I feel that the gender discrimination issue with reference to black women is going to relate to black men, not white men. At the same time, white women are unlikely to experience sexism in relation to black men – black men haven’t got the power to discriminate against them period.

I think this is flat wrong.  But in addition to what I have already said about why it’s wrong, I’ll say that black men got the vote 70 or so years before white women in the United States.  I will say that black men earn more money than white women and have for years; in fact the only group in the U.S. which earns more money than black men is white men, to wit:

Race/gender Earnings Wage ratio
White men $41,211 100.0%
Black men $32,241 78.2
White women $31,169 75.6
Black women $26,965 65.4
Hispanic men $26,083 63.3
Hispanic women $22,363 54.3
All men $40,668  
All women $30,724  
Wage gap   75.5%

(“NOTE: Includes full-time, year-round workers ages 15 and above. “White” and “Black” exclude those who reported more than one race category. “Hispanic” includes all those who so identified themselves, regardless of race.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2004 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.)

I would further point out that white and black men and all races of men bond over misogynist pornography featuring the bodies of white women and all races of women (and girls). I’d say that white women, just like all women, are prostituted, including by black men.  I think that black men can and do beat the shit out of their white wives and girlfriends from time to time and that they can and do beat the shit out of their white wives’ and girlfriends’ kids from time to time.  I think that black men can and do incest and molest their white wives’ children from time to time, as well, just as all other men molest and incest their wives’, of whatever race, children.

This is a Denver Post article about my niece, the woman in the picture at the top of this post, who was raped by two young, black enlisted men while serving in the Navy on the U.S.S. Abraham Lincoln when it was stationed in the Gulf prior to the war on Iraq.  I attended the trial of her two rapists who were found guilty and sentenced to the military brig (each for less than a year.)  My niece became pregnant as a result of being raped, bore her baby and is raising her, and is now disabled by post-traumatic stress disorder.   Nobody believed her in the months after rape.  When she sought medical help she was given Tylenol.  She had trouble getting to work in the morning because she was on the ship with her rapists, they were continuing to threaten her every single day, and she worked in the mess hall where she had to see them every day.  Her ongoing struggles following the rapes resulted in her being demoted in rank and being discharged early and without the benefits she enlisted in hopes of receiving.  She found good feminist attorneys who sued the Navy finally and won a fine settlement for her and her daughter, but not until she had literally gone to hell and back.

The men who raped my niece not only had the power to rape her and destroy her life, they were protected in that destruction by other men, both white men and black men.  My niece’s white skin did not protect her.

Black feminists have and will continue to wage feminist revolution on their own terms, no doubt about that.  But to suggest that black men as a group do not have the “power” to oppress white women is flat wrong.  Which is not to say that black men do not suffer, suffer, suffer, dear goddess on high, under the weight of white racism, they do.  I have four adult sons whose fathers — my abusers, my husbands — were black.  I love them dearly.  I have seen their  battles up close and more personal than I have been able, at times, to bear.  Which does not for one moment change the fact that they continue to have access to power over white women.




17 thoughts on “Male Heteropatriarchal Power

  1. I’m not saying that individual black men can’t do terrible things to white women. I will acknowledge that my father (black) terrorized our family (including my white mother) – but at the end of the day, she could have used the white power structure [effectively in this case] against him if she had chosen to. Unfortunately she waited 26 years to finally call the police and divorce him, one of the reasons being that she did not want to call the police on a black man.

    Posted by ruminations of a racial realist | May 7, 2006, 6:24 pm
  2. Racial realist, it isn’t just a matter of individual black men doing terrible things. When my niece was raped — which has honestly destroyed her life; she is not able to work, she is disabled, she is medicated, and the fact that she was raped and bore a child of that rape is public information, something she allowed to highlight the horrific problems with rape in the military — all her rapists did was a few months in jail. She pays for the rest of her life. That reflects access to *male power* — that valuing of the lives of men, including black men, over the lives of a raped white woman and her children. When I divorced my second husband after years of abuse, he *easily* accessed male power, via the church we had attended, the male leadership of the church, including black male leadership, resulting ultimately in my being forced out of business. The fact that black men make more money than all women reflects access to *male power*. And the way we, as white women — including me — protect black men, even when they are abusing us, also has to do with male power, with the fact that our stake in a male heterosupremacist system is our complicity with that system. We allow ourselves to be abused, our children, goddess help us, to be abused, before we will subject the men in our lives to the possible abuse of other men. That is us as women, putting the men first, the way we were raised to do as human beings who are part of a subordinated caste.


    Posted by womensspace | May 7, 2006, 6:58 pm
  3. And the way we, as white women, protect our black male partners as racial realist describes is also more, again, still about women cleaning up the messes men make, in this case the racial mess white men have made. It’s all about us taking care of men, as women learn early we are supposed to do.

    One more thing, and that is, look who is at the bottom on that wage chart: hispanic men and women both. Which is what has brought us to this day in history when they are saying enough, and more power to them.


    Posted by womensspace | May 7, 2006, 7:28 pm
  4. Back in the late 90s I attended a conference on the issue of poverty in DC for a group I was heavily volunteering with at the time. The keynote was by Marion Wright Edelman, who got up to speak after Jonathan Kozol’s gripping account of inner-city schools made everyone seethe with the injustice of it and soar with tales of remarkable black women who were keeping their communities together the best they could.

    In talking about oppressions, she spoke a lot about racial poverty and once when a small slip about the poverty of women passed her lips she paused, took a moment, and then corrected herself saying “not that poverty is a women’s issue.”

    I took the opportunity to go up to the microphone and say that as a woman and a feminist I was hurt to hear her backpeddle on poverty as a woman’s issue when gender is one of the clearest markers for people vulnerable to poverty. She apologized and invited me to Haley Farms to discuss the matter further, but what I’m most proud of is afterwards several men and women rushed up to thank me.

    They too had listened to Kozol tell stories of the bravery of black women in NYC forced to provide for kids with less than no help and had heard of the black women making trees grow where no one expected more than weeds. When Edelman backpeddled so obviously away from poverty as a woman’s issue they were stunned but did not dare question the well-intentioned and successful humanitarian black woman onstage. I do not know Ms. Edelman and could not take her up on her offer to visit Haley Farms, but I hope she became a little more brave about recognizing that women’s poverty is a racial issue and racial poverty is a woman’s issue instead of stepping away from women’s oppression like she mistakenly stepped in dogshit. That’s really how it felt, like she had made a terrible verbal mistake she was intent on correcting.

    Perhaps I haven’t read these particular feminists, but are there any feminists you (any of y’all) can think of who steer clear away from talking about race and its relation to sexism when the subject practically begs it? I’m sure feminist advocates for prostituted women are very aware of the intersections of race and sex, but what about say Naomi Wolf and the beauty myth or similar such feminist writers?

    Posted by Sam | May 8, 2006, 10:37 pm
  5. A few comments…..what would you think would be an example of scenarios where White women use their Whiteness to exploit Black men?

    There is a significant problem with using income data at the personal level. The problem is that most people live in households. The racial gap in income at the level of families and households (the last time I checked it early 1990s) was actually higher than the gender gap. Black families made something like 69% of White famillies. That is just an interesting point to think about when reporting income data. The data above is definitely correct; I’m not disputing that, just bringing up an important point.

    Posted by Rachel S | May 9, 2006, 1:25 am
  6. Rachel, I don't dispute what you say about household income; that doesn't change the fact that black men make more money than white women. And if you will do the homework, you'll see that that has been true for some time.

    what would you think would be an example of scenarios where White women use their Whiteness to exploit Black men?

    I would say that if you want to talk about that, you talk about it. You provide me with examples of "scenarios where you think white women use their whiteness to exploit Black men" and I'll tell you what I think about your examples. (Note: in general, I do not capitalize white. In general, though not always, but more often than not, I do capitalize Black. In any event, please don't capitalize "white" in here.)

    I'm not going to play any games in here. If you want to discuss this with me, you will respect me. Period.


    Posted by womensspace | May 9, 2006, 3:36 am
  7. And something else.  What's up with posting as you did without even commenting on the rapes of my niece? One of her rapists did *three months* in the brig. One did six months. The ONLY reason they were ever brought to justice is, she had a parent who dogged the Navy like white on rice, all the way through President Bush, and threatened to go to the media.

    And how dare you come in here with this, "how do white women exploit Black men," without commenting AT all about the fact that I almost died at the hands of one Black man, and lost just about all I had at the hands of another, all the while I am raising these men's children the best I can, holding their worlds together as well as my own?

    This is something I'd expect from men's rights activists and anti-feminists, this skimming over atrocities against women — all verifiable, my niece's story went national, her stories and mine are public knowledge, available for review through the courts — to ask the rough equivalent of, "but what about the men?"


    Posted by womensspace | May 9, 2006, 3:43 am
  8. Wow. I’m not sure what to say. My biological father is Native American and he terrorized my mother (Irish-English) for at least 15 years. I’m never going to forget the pain in my mothers voice or the rage in my aunts when they spoke of how their brothers, except one, sided with him when she finally left him after he tried to kill one of my brothers in retaliation against her. One told him where she was at, another called up in the wee hours to chew her out and another still bitches to this day (30 years after she left him & 20 years after her death) about how ‘upset’ our ‘dad’ was about her taking ‘his’ kids away from him.

    I don’t know. I think it’s hard for most people to realize, understand and/or accept the power that men of colour can exert over white women, especially if that woman has been branded a ‘race traitor’ or is from the lower class.


    Posted by KC | May 9, 2006, 3:58 pm
  9. Yeah, KC– white women who are race traitors, and especially if they are, as you say, poor (which we generally will be as a consequence of being race traitors, in that we get disowned or just dissed by our families, we lose our families' support, also because our partners (and sometimes we) are discriminated against in jobs and in other ways — live with the spectre of white men's lies hanging over our heads. White men lied about us to justify their racist abuse of black men and all men of color, blaming us for their violences and genocides, it was all about "chivalry", it was all about defense of our "honor", when it wasn't about that at all. We live with the vestiges of that, these ideas that we claimed "rape" or "abuse" and that was why white men committed crimes against humanity. In fact, white men used us as an excuse to do what they wanted to do: conquer. Take by force. Commit genocide. Rule. Subordinate. That wasn't our idea, that wasn't our project, that wasn't our agenda, but we didn't have the societal or cultural power to stop it. We were already ruled, subordinated, and often, taken by force ourselves.

    But when we speak up and give voice to our experiences, those of us who are race traitors, of violation at the hands of men of color, we feel that old ugliness, the old lies about us, the way we are hated for speaking our truth.

    There are other components to that, too. Women who are race traitors are made to be sluts, whores, under male supremacy.  It's another way taboos on interracial relationships are enforced.  So when we are abused or raped or battered, we are just getting what sluts and whores deserve. We should have known better than to commit this particular high treason.


    Posted by womensspace | May 9, 2006, 4:31 pm
  10. It’s a really creepy place to be, too. You are resented or hated or held in contempt by everyone, including in progressive circles, because the truth of your life violates all sorts of scripts and choreographies set before you. But that’s just the thing. The truths of our lives as women usually *do* violate all the scripts, especially the horrible truths, and there is no way that will end until we talk about it.


    Posted by womensspace | May 9, 2006, 4:37 pm
  11. I identify as a Black woman. I have grown up in a household where my mother worked, went to school and raised 4 beautiful daughters by herself. My father was in the picture in apperance only. He lived with us and if mom was lucky monthly he contributed maybe $300. He was abusive in many ways to my mother. I will give her history.

    My mom is mixed. Her mother was both portugese/black, her father was white. So my great grand mother was fair skinned and passed for white (remember the times) for a better life, to escape poverty. When her white husband found out she was black (baby was born a lil to dark…) he divorced her. My grand mother was sent away to live with another relative so great grand could continue on as a white woman. She grew up very fair skinned and married a navy man who was born in barbados but grew up in NYC.

    My father is black foot native american (I dont want anyone to be offended by the lack of capitalization of races here its not at all the purpose just some of them may be missed I do try to capitalize all of them) from his mother’s side (surname Skylark) and Black deep southern roots.

    I have always thought that somewhere in there was the reason why dad abused and mom put up with it. My mom’s mother was abused by her Black husband too. Not sure if it was his drinking problem or a combination of that and the male feeling of veneration in having a “White” (she wasnt completely white) woman, but I do question this and think about it daily.

    The rape of your neice is HORRIBLE. The “justice” served to her attackers is a mockery and basically a slap in the face.

    Eldridge Cleaver, former Black Panther Party leader, has written two books one being Soul on Ice. I think it is a good read. It explains, though does NOT justify Black men’s infatuation, domination, and often abuse of White women. When I read that many things made sense to me. I think that this is a topic that does not get enough exposure and maybe because of the male power structure.

    I’m 21 in college at The University of Massachusetts Boston and in my philosophy class we are studying oppression and learning of it through womens oppression. We currendly are reading an article written in 1983 by Marilyn Frye. In that article she says that men can be oppressed due to race or nationality but NEVER for being men and that only WOMEN are oppressed both through race, class, nationality and GENDER. Simply being a woman is reason enough to be oppressed and abused let alone our racial, ethnic, or class differences.

    I want to say KEEP PUSHING and dont give up. We have to stop this thinking in terms of tit for tat… ‘I’m a black woman and once upon a day white slave masters raped abused and degraded me how does it feel now that your on the receiving end’ I have encountered that too many times and it is pure ignorance. Injustice stands alone… there is no way to make it right by it reoccuring. The only difference between the abuse my mother suffered and that which you suffered is what??? both suffered right? The difference only comes into play when it is covered up or rationalized and that pisses me off. I am proud of your neice for having her baby and raising her. I am angry with our government for allowing those monsters to continue on with their lives while her’s has been shattered. Its truly a shame… Male oppression is REAL and it is REALLY time that we all do something about it.

    Posted by Divine Purpose | February 2, 2007, 7:25 pm
  12. Divine Purpose, I really appreciate what you’ve said here. I think those of us from or in biracial families have a different and unique perspective on many issues. I read Soul on Ice as a college student in probably 1970 or 1971 and found it brilliantly and horrifyingly insightful. I just quoted Marilyn Frye yesterday, so you are definitely timely with what you are saying about her writings on racism– they were very much pioneering and she isn’t credited nearly enough for the really good anti-racism work and writing she has done.

    Welcome– glad you’re here.


    Posted by womensspace | February 2, 2007, 7:49 pm
  13. Divine Purpose, I just finished responding to you on abortion rights, and I have to say I’m struggling with whether I was too harsh in my response since I’ve learned more about you. Your being 21 makes a difference since it’s an age where I know there are so many questions to explore and I have so much admiration for original, young thinkers.

    I must say, your being a Black woman makes a difference to me too because I have more sympathy with the way the church has been a comfort and strength for Black people in America than I have for the church in the role of oppressor as I see it elsewhere. I stand by what I said, but I don’t want you to feel attacked. Challenged yes…attacked no.

    “Male oppression is REAL and it is REALLY time that we all do something about it.”

    So true. I also have to say that my father was as white as you can get (English/Dutch/Irish origins, upper middle-class American) and he was an abusive alcoholic. I have never, ever, for one single second viewed women’s oppression-as-women as class, race or religiously-based for that reason. I believe that women can and do live multiple oppressions, but as women we all know what it’s like to fear male violence.

    I’ve been partnered with Black men, Latino men and White men and it’s really not that different in my experience. Black men like to argue and talk more, Latino men are more affectionate but also more controlling, and White men are more selfish and less communicative. I’m talking about a fairly large sample size here, but I’m being facetious about stereotyping: of course, there are more individual than cultural differences. My point is that our role as women is always to be subject to male dictates, whatever they are.

    Here in frozen Chicago with the Superbowl coming, I remembered today why I have an aversion to football: a (white, middle-class German-American) ex-fiancé once *punched me* for talking during a football game. I had put it out of my mind for ten years. It happened in a sports bar, and it was bad enough that another young woman came up to me in the bathroom and said, “I saw what he did to you. Can I take you home?”

    Solidarity among women takes many forms in many places. Thank you Divine Purpose and Heart for reminding me of its beauty and power.

    Posted by roamaround | February 3, 2007, 2:49 am
  14. I loved reading this. The level of honesty, candor and sensitivity is unsurpassed in anything I have read so far. You have my email address,
    please keep me updated.

    Posted by Philip Jones | February 4, 2007, 7:04 am
  15. I’ve responded to your post Roamaround.

    I feel that many of your own prejudices showed up in this post. Your sympathy of the role the Black Church has played to Black people and understanding (if you will) of my age being a probable reason for my views because 21 is an age where there are so many questions to explore… I am offended. Had I not said that I am 21 and Black would you have changed your tune? I mean really what does that have to do with the validity of what I said?

    I could well be reading too much into this and well who could blame me… but it almost seems as if you are softening your response not based on what I said but based on your perception of me. I have had many posts in that blog about the abortion issue and wont bring it here but I will just say that your perception is offensive to me.

    I too am a race traitor! gasp!!! Thats right my fiance is White. I grew up in a “two family” (you read about my dad!) Black house hold. My father grew up in a time where you could not trust White people, no matter how good they were to you. My mother grew up in a racially mixed home where abuse and washing blood off the walls at holidays was the norm. The product, mom raised her daughters not to see color. It wasnt until we were called Nigger by one of my White classmates that we had even known we were different! I mean we had daddy’s rantings on how you cant trust White men and women but Mommy had always told us that the only color that matters is red because we all bleed the same. I will never forget that by the way…

    My father discouraged us from taking White boys as boyfriends when we were little girls… this lasted through to our teens. We had only dated or looked at men of color. I will explain my reasoning… I felt that everyone in my family other than mom didnt want White people in the family and I didnt feel it was fair for me to put someone in that position so I stayed away from men who werent minority.

    My fiance is amazing. No man has EVER made me feel like a queen, honored my views or supported my dreams. Often in the Black community especially in relationships we find that Black men are intimidated by Black women’s strength andverbal expressions, not to mention intelligence. I was just discussing this with him earlier this evening after I’d come home from class. His mother raised him the same way that mine did. She took a needle and pricked her finger and showed him that the only color that matters is red. She told him because that is the color we all are on the inside so that is all that matters until you get older then green is what matters. lol we laughed because he was very young and thought that meant that when you get older your blood turns green… so cute…

    anyway, my point is that we all have our beliefs and our values and we easily get angry when those are challenged. Sometimes being the one to make waves is dangerous and can damage you, and other times they can turn a racist/bigot around. My father had all that lip when I was a kid but truth be told he LOVES my fiance. They talk all the time and dad really enjoys him. I have taught my father that color really doesnt matter, what matters is the character of the person. It is not about race or age but the points at hand.

    Just some food for thought. I think it was a bit biased for you to assume that my views came from my up bringing as a young black girl in the black church… or to understand because at my age there are many questions to explore… Thats like saying oh shes young thats why… It just sort of rubbed me the wrong way, so I just want you to know that its not about my race or age, its about the points and value.

    I have an assignment in which I have to do a presentation on Frye!! YAY That is the article that I wanted for obvious reasons but anyway, in reading her writings I was lead to another author. A woman who was mixed her mom is Chicano and her father Anglo. She is saying that as women we have to first identify with our oppression and unify that. Not cast it off as one vs the other or seperate them but to understand that we have a common bond and that we are NOT enemy each to the other. I agree with that. Whether I agree with your stance or not still we are women and there is a comraderie there.

    Frye is an amazing woman and damn it Heart no she didnt get the credit she deserved! Three cheers for Frye I love her work!!!

    But Frye writes that women are oppressed as women, men are not. Men are oppressed for their class race etc as are women but women also face oppression for GENDER. Merely being a woman is enough a reason to be oppressed… imagine every possible struggle that a woman faces, and then add to it the struggle of poverty class race… its heavy. Very heavy and I have been trying very hard to find a way to address this to the black community at large… Everyone tells me I should not major in Political Science but in social science or womens rights… hmmmmm.. thinkin about it but that political aspect is what will get me where I want to be as a politician some day… uhoh femm turned politician watch out! 😉

    (My fiance was enraged when I told him what happened to you during that stupid game. Dont get me wrong I love football GO PATS but it was wrong.. nothing justifies a man hitting a woman much less she was talkin during a game… what the hell?!?!?! and he said if he had been present he would have kicked dude’s ass! just wanted you to know.)

    Posted by Divine Purpose | February 8, 2007, 5:26 am
  16. I read Soul on Ice a few years ago, and I’m still thinking about it. It shook me up – which is good, because that’s part of why I read it, to shake up my ideas and predjudices and to learn more about the radical Black civil rights movement. I was expecting to be challenged about my perspectives and motives as a white person; I was not expecting to feel so threatened (not just challenged, but physically threatened) as a woman, especially a white woman.

    Cleaver is really, really focussed on masculinity, and I felt like the reason for his radicalism was because of the masculine benefits that he feels he is entitled to, but has been kept from realizing by white oppression. And there doesn’t seem to be any awareness that women are anything but pawns in this game between men, to be controlled by the white men (who taunts the black man by keeping them away from him) or by the black man (who ‘steals’ them back, by wooing them away or in his case by raping them.) It’s all about power-over, and control.

    Gah. I have a whole page of just random writings about the book, stream of consciousness stuff, that I actually meant to un-stream-of-consciousness and send to you, because I thought that maybe you could help me make sense of all the conflicting ways it made me feel. I felt bad for him, because the fact is he *was* abused, dehumanized, made into less-than because of his race. And yet his response to that was to turn around and abuse, dehumanize, and make into less-than the only people whom he could dominate – women. And, most specifically and viscerally to me as the reader, white women, upon whom he took out his rage.

    I would love to read anything you’ve written about Soul on Ice, coming from your perspective as a radical feminist/white mother to black sons/victim of abuse and battery at the hands of specific black men/former wife of a member of the Black Panthers. You have a point of view that is probably unique, or close to it.

    Posted by Oni no Maggie | April 10, 2007, 9:51 pm
  17. Hey, Oni No Maggie, for you, anything. 🙂 I will be back to offer a few thoughts. I read Soul on Ice in 1970 as a freshman at the University of Washington, the year it was written. I found it disturbing but also invigorating in its frankness and brilliance. I didn’t value my own life then and so my response to the book was much different than I’m sure it would be if I read it today. I think I still have my copy from college, somewhere. I should dig it out and take a look and then comment.


    Posted by womensspace | April 10, 2007, 10:52 pm

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